Turkey is a cross-country nation found predominantly on the Anatolian promontory in Western Asia, with a little bit on the Balkan landmass in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, the piece of Turkey in Europe, is isolated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous and the Dardanelles (by and large called the Turkish Straits). Turkey is circumscribed by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its upper east; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran toward the east; and Iraq and Syria toward the south. Istanbul is the biggest city while Ankara is the capital. Roughly 70 to 80 percent of the nation's residents distinguish as Turkish. Kurds are the biggest minority at somewhere in the range of 15 to 20 percent of the populace.
At different focuses in its history, the area has been possessed by assorted civilisations including the Assyrians, Greeks, Thracians, Phrygians, Urartians, and Armenians. Hellenization began during the time of Alexander the Great and proceeded into the Byzantine period. The Seljuk Turks started relocating into the region in the eleventh century, and their triumph over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the beginning and establishment of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm administered Anatolia until the Mongol intrusion in 1243, when it broke down into little Turkmen territories. Starting in the late thirteenth century, the Ottomans began joining these Turkish territories. After Mehmed II vanquished Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman development proceeded under Selim I. During the rule of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire incorporated a lot of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and turned into a force to be reckoned with. In the next hundreds of years the state entered a time of decrease with a progressive loss of regions and wars. With an end goal to solidify the debilitating social and political establishments of the domain, Mahmut II began a time of modernisation in the mid nineteenth century, getting changes all regions of the state including the military and administration alongside the liberation everything being equal.