123 France is a nation whose region comprises of metropolitan France in Western Europe and a few abroad locales and domains. The metropolitan territory of France reaches out from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is flanked by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany toward the upper east, Switzerland and Italy toward the east, and Andorra and Spain toward the south. The abroad regions remember French Guiana for South America and a few islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian seas. The nation's 18 vital areas (five of which are arranged abroad) length a consolidated zone of 643,801 square kilometers (248,573 sq mi) and an absolute populace of 67.02 million (starting at July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the nation's biggest city and principle social and business focus. Other major urban territories incorporate Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is currently metropolitan France was possessed by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome added the region in 51 BC, holding it until the appearance of Germanic Franks in 476, who shaped the Kingdom of Francia. The Treaty of Verdun of 843 divided Francia into East Francia, Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which turned into the Kingdom of France in 987, rose as a significant European power in the Late Middle Ages, following its triumph in the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453). During the Renaissance, French culture thrived and a worldwide pilgrim realm was set up, which by the twentieth century would turn into the second biggest on the planet. The sixteenth century was overwhelmed by strict common wars among Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France turned into Europe's predominant social, political, and military power in the seventeenth century under Louis XIV. In the late eighteenth century, the French Revolution toppled the total government, building up one of present day history's most punctual republics and drafting the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which communicates the country's goals right up 'til the present time.